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Jim Steel and Jean-Marc Jézéquel (2007)

On Model Typing

Journal of Software and Systems Modeling (SoSyM) 6(4):401–414.

Where object-oriented languages deal with objects as described by classes, model-driven development uses models, as graphs of interconnected objects, described by metamodels. A number of new languages have been and continue to be developed for this modelbased paradigm, both for model transformation and for general programming using models. Many of these use single-object approaches to typing, derived from solutions found in object-oriented systems, while others use metamodels asmodel types, but without a clear notion of polymorphism. Both of these approaches lead to brittle and overly restrictive reuse characteristics. In this paper we propose a simple extension to object-oriented typing to better cater for a model-oriented context, including a simple strategy for typing models as a collection of interconnected objects. We suggest extensions to existing type system formalisms to support these concepts and theirmanipulation. Using a simple examplewe show how this extended approach permits more flexible reuse, while preserving type safety.